Detailed list of features

  • Meets highest accuracy requirements
  • Processes all static GNSS applications
  • RINEX (2.x and 3.x) data interface
  • Processes all principal observables recorded by high precision geodetic receivers, i.e., code and phase data on both carriers
  • Takes into account differential code biases (DCBs) for satellites and receivers for applications involving code observations
  • Single and dual frequency data may be processed in the same estimation step, use of ionosphere models to minimize the impact of ionospheric biases on station coordinates
  • Five different linear combinations of L1 and L2 may be used
  • Allows for a fully combined processing of data from GPS, GLONASS, and GPS/GLONASS receivers
  • The use of observations for Galileo, SBAS, Compass, and QZSS is prepared (not fully tested yet for all systems and configurations because of the lack of data)
  • Different ambiguity resolution strategies allow fixing of phase ambiguities on up to very long (several thousand kilometers) baselines − available for GPS and GLONASS
  • Processing in double-difference mode as well as in zero-difference mode. Particuarly suitable for time transfer and precise point positioning
  • Processing and combination of data from various receiver types in the same processing step due to a fully integrated handling of:
    • code biases (DCB − due to different code tracking technologies used by the different receivers) and
    • 1/4-cycle (as the result of the simultaneous processing of GPS L2C and L2P data for certain receiver types)
  • Kinematic capabilities
  • Kinematic and reduced-dynamic precise orbit determination for Low Earth orbiters (LEOs)
  • Capability to process SLR observations to GNSS and LEO satellites
  • Station motions modeled for plate motions, tides, and ocean loading.
  • Geophysical deformation models can be introduced as grids and validated by estimating scaling factors
  • Different troposphere mapping functions available, estimation of troposphere gradient parameters
  • Higher order ionosphere corrections (2nd and 3rd order and ray bending) including the estimation of scaling factors
  • Modeling of all time-dependent parameters by a piece-wise linear, continuous representation, in particular for troposphere zenith delay and gradient parameters, Earth orientation parameters, and global ionosphere models
  • Allows applying and estimating antenna phase patterns for receiver (GNSS-specific) and for satellite antennas. Supports the ANTEX antenna information exchange format
  • Simultaneous solution for a large number of different parameter types
  • The parameter estimation programs may be used for baseline/session/campaign/multiple-campaign processing. Many different complex solutions (e.g., annual coordinate and ERP solutions) using (e.g., daily) normal equation systems can be produced without reprocessing the observations
  • The normal equation stacker (ADDNEQ2) offers sophisticated options for pre-elimination of parameters, parameter transformations, and for the definition of the geodetic datum, including minimum constraint network conditions
  • Setup and manipulation of normal equations without inversion
  • Sophisticated observation simulation tool available
  • A graphical user interface, clear input panels, and program structure supported by an online help system
  • The Bernese Processing Engine (BPE) allows to tailor automated processing sequences. It includes options supporting, in particular, the efficient reprocessing of GNSS data from several years
  • Ready-to-use BPE examples distributed together with the software: precise point positioning, baseline-wise processing, double-difference network processing (RINEX-to-SINEX), clock estimation, LEO orbit determination, and SLR orbit validation